UDP - User Datagram Protocol

UDP: What is the User Datagram Protocol?

The Internet protocol family – the cornerstone for communication on the Internet – has around 500 members who work on a wide variety of layers. For example, the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is responsible on the transport layer for the transmission of packets that were previously addressed via the Internet Protocol (IP). In this guide, you can find out exactly what distinguishes...

Token ring

Token ring – IEEE 802.5

A glance back into history can reveal a lot. Although token ring networks, or ring topologies, are nowhere to be found nowadays, token rings remain an interesting form of technology. Why the model, which is actually quite good, was outdone by its competitor Ethernet is due to the merciless nature of the tech market. Read the history behind token rings, along with a definition of the system that...

Edge computing

Edge Computing – Calculating at the edge of the network

Autonomous cars, intelligent factories and self-regulating supply networks – a dream world for large-scale data-driven projects that will make our lives easier. However, what the cloud model is and how it works is not enough to make these dreams a reality. The challenge of effectively capturing, evaluating and storing mass data requires new data processing concepts. With edge computing, IT...

SNMP: Simple Network Management Protocol

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): the protocol for network management

The communication protocol SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is an elementary component of many network management applications. It defines a number of message types that greatly simplify the monitoring and administration of individual network participants such as PCs, routers, servers, switches, firewalls, or printers. How exactly the SNMP protocol works and what fundamental adjustments...

IGMP snooping

IGMP snooping: eavesdropping for multicast traffic

If a system in IP networks is to send data packets to different target hosts as efficiently as possible, an IP multicasting connection is the perfect solution. When it comes to multipoint transmission, the data packets are able to reach all interested parties thanks to various protocols such as GMP, for example. Switches and internet routers can also use the communication protocol for IGMP...

SNTP: simple network time protocol

Simple network time protocol: the stripped-back protocol for time synchronization

An exact system time on a computer is especially important when devices need to exchange data. Cross-system processes quickly come to a standstill if the generated time stamps are very different from the time that applies to the system. Synchronisation methods that keep the clocks of the individual network participants in sync are utterly indispensable. One of the simplest methods to achieve time...

IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

IGMP: what is behind the Internet Group Management Protocol

Using multicast connections, data streams can be transferred to a large number of clients easily and in such a way that saves resources – provided that the accessing systems are part of the same multicast group. In IPv4 networks, the organisation and management of these groups is based on the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), which was published as early as 1989. What exactly this...

Load balancers: distributing server workloads

Better server access time with load balancing

Online stores, company websites, or promotional content: it doesn’t matter what platform you’re using—availability remains key for a successful online business model. More and more companies are opting to use load balancing schemes to equally distribute the server requests of internet users across multiple computers. When properly applied, not only does load balancing permit high availability for...

Fog computing

Fog computing: decentralised approach for IoT clouds

Traditionally, cloud solutions are designed for central data processing. IoT devices generate data, send it to a central computing platform in the cloud, and await a response. However, with large-scale cloud architectures, such a system inevitably leads to bandwidth problems. For future projects such as connected cities and smart manufacturing, classic cloud computing is a hindrance to growth. The...

Virtual machines

An introduction to virtual machines

Virtual machines are extremely practical and versatile: Do you want to set up an isolated test environment, run a Linux application on your Windows computer, or provide different operating systems for cross-platform software tests? With the right virtualization software and an appropriate image file, this is easy. We will introduce you to the basics of hypervisor-supported hardware virtualization...


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