Network Time Protocol (NTP)

Network time protocol (NTP): definition and functionality

Computer systems and applications use time stamps for communication purposes. Synchronous system times are highly important for these so-called temporal signatures to be of any use – especially for systems that exchange information via the internet. A protocol that has provided valuable assistance for decades is the network time protocol (NTP) – here is an introduction to NTP, as well as some...

Unix: a history

Unix: the operating system setting new standards

In the context of open source operating systems, the term “unixoid” is often used, indicating that the software is similar to the Unix system published in 1969. Typical indicators are, for example, the file system, or means and rights available to access the system and its processes. But what exactly is Unix, and who is behind the development of this influential operating system?

What is Internet protocol? – IP definition, etc.

What is Internet Protocol (IP)?

When networking a computer system, protocols play an important role. An example is the Internet protocol, which was published in a first specification in 1981, and is the indispensable basis for the smooth sending and receiving of data packets. But what is behind the RFC standard? And how does the Internet protocol actually work?

Ethernet frame

Ethernet frame: definition and variants of the frame format

Ethernet frames enable the transmission of data over an Ethernet connection and are essential for local area networks. Ethernet frames are structured and sized differently depending on the protocol, and contain important information such as MAC addresses, protocol information, length information, and much more. The established Ethernet standard IEEE 802.3 has also developed special frames for VLAN...

Ethernet

What is Ethernet (IEEE 802.3)?

In the beginning, there was ARPANET and ALOHAnet. Then Ethernet followed as a groundbreaking innovation for local networks. Ethernet enabled collision-free interconnection of multiple devices via a common bus. For the first time, data packages could efficiently be exchanged between individual devices. Today, the technology is extensively used in the standard IEEE 802.3. With fiber optic cables,...

What is CentOS? Versions & system requirements

What is CentOS?

Finding a suitable operating system that meets your own requirements is usually not very difficult in the private sector. Most of the time, it’s just down to personal taste whether you favour Windows, macOS, or Linux. The search for a system solution for enterprise and server environments is far more difficult and complex. When selecting, factors such as long-term support, security, and cost play...

An Overview of SaaS (Software as a Service)

What is SaaS (software as a service)? An overview

Software as a service, or SaaS for short, is an increasingly popular option for cloud computing. With SaaS, you use software over the Internet instead of installing it on your hard drive. This offers considerable advantages, especially for companies. As with other cloud services, there are also various concerns about data security. What exactly SaaS is, where the advantages and disadvantages of...

Server Name Indication

Server Name Indication (SNI): What’s behind the standard?

What is server name identification, really? Encryption technologies play a big role when it comes to surfing on the net. Credit card data and other personal information must not fall into the hands of criminals. For now, TLS is one of the protocols used for this purpose. But it has a disadvantage: it only functions when each IP address only hosts one domain. If multiple virtual services are...

Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi: Affordable DIY hardware

Arduino vs. Raspberry Pi: a comparison of the microcontroller and single-board computer

DIY projects such as timers, remote controls, robots, and drones are becoming ever more popular. Knowledge of such things as electronics and programming, though, is fading into the background – thanks to ready-to-use, affordable components such as Arduino boards and minicomputers like Raspberry Pi. They allow for novices and amateur hobby craftsmen to obtain their own results quickly without...

URL: What is a Uniform Resource Locator?

URL: definition and areas of application

The Uniform Resource Locator (short: URL) is one of the basic standard tools of the internet. URLs make it easy to uniquely identify resources on the internet and find their location. Internet users use webpage URLs to surf the web, follow hyperlinks or download files. The concept is based on a human tangible syntax that is automatically read out and interpreted by machines.


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