Token ring

Token ring – IEEE 802.5

A glance back into history can reveal a lot. Although token ring networks, or ring topologies, are nowhere to be found nowadays, token rings remain an interesting form of technology. Why the model, which is actually quite good, was outdone by its competitor Ethernet is due to the merciless nature of the tech market. Read the history behind token rings, along with a definition of the system that...


Qt: the C++ framework for developing cross-platform software

Frameworks are an integral element of software development. The collections of tools, libraries and ready-to-use components standardise and simplify the development process, which means a great deal of time can be saved when creating new applications. For example, the framework based on C++ Qt supplies diverse tools for the creation of cross-platform user interfaces; it is also convincing due to...

Monero XMR

Monero (XMR) – the anonymous cryptocurrency

Bitcoin is not the only cryptocurrency on the internet, nor is it the most useful one. The altcoin Monero (also known as XMR) offers users a high degree of anonymity which has always been an issue with the leading providers of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and Ripple. With these providers, every transaction can be traced back but not with XMR. How does Monero ensure this high level of...


Scrum: modern and flexible agile project management

What exactly is the Scrum framework? If you deal with agile project management, you can’t ignore Scrum. Originally used in software development, Scrum has also found a home in many other industries. Fans of the model rave about greater efficiency and transparency, and praise the framework’s open approach. Are you also considering establishing Scrum teams in your company? We explain the most...


OAuth & OAuth 2: data usage across platforms

The “pathway to hell” – this is how Eran Hammer-Lahav once called the security protocol OAuth 2.0, on which he himself had worked for years. Others, however, use the service without issue. It enables users to use data and functions across multiple platforms in multiple services – for example, with the convenient single sign-on – using secure API authorisation. But how exactly does OAuth2 work and...

Broadcast address

What is a broadcast address and how does it work?

Broadcasting is one of the most diverse means of communicating in a network. A data packet is sent to an entire network from one point, without having to specify one or more recipients. You direct your data packet to the broadcast address to do this. In this article, we explain what the broadcast IP is and how you can find out this address. We also give you a simple explanation of what a broadcast...

An Overview of SaaS (Software as a Service)

What is SaaS (software as a service)? An overview

Software as a service, or SaaS for short, is an increasingly popular option for cloud computing. With SaaS, you use software over the Internet instead of installing it on your hard drive. This offers considerable advantages, especially for companies. As with other cloud services, there are also various concerns about data security. What exactly SaaS is, where the advantages and disadvantages of...

PaaS - Platform as a Service

PaaS: platform as a service at a glance

Cloud services are becoming increasingly important for companies. In addition to software and infrastructure that can be booked via the provider's cloud (SaaS and IaaS), cloud-based platforms for developing new applications (PaaS) are also becoming more popular. Companies can make their self-developed software available on these platforms without having to set up the necessary infrastructure...

SNTP: simple network time protocol

Simple network time protocol: the stripped-back protocol for time synchronization

An exact system time on a computer is especially important when devices need to exchange data. Cross-system processes quickly come to a standstill if the generated time stamps are very different from the time that applies to the system. Synchronisation methods that keep the clocks of the individual network participants in sync are utterly indispensable. One of the simplest methods to achieve time...

Excel if-then statements

Excel if-then: how the IF function works

Excel’s if-then statement is one of its most helpful formulas. In many situations, you can create a logical comparison: if A is true, then B, otherwise C. To use this useful if-then formula in Excel, you first need to understand how it works and precisely how to use it. For example, which syntax rules does the IF function follow, and how can you extend the formula?