Protocols

clear cookies

Deleting cookies: how to clear stored data

Some cookies can be very helpful – they let you sleep on those impulse purchases and keep them from disappearing out of your shopping cart, or log into social media sites with just one click. But not all cookies make surfing the web easier, and some may even forward unwanted information to third parties. It is a good idea to learn how to clear cookies, and this guide will show you how to clear...

QUIC – the Internet Transport Protocol based on UDP

QUIC: What is behind the experimental Google Protocol?

Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC for short), is an experimental network protocol from Google. Further development of the protocol is being driven by IETF, which has set up a dedicated group working towards it. The QUIC protocol is intended to offer a speed-optimized alternative to the current transport standard TCP and builds on the connectionless protocol UDP to achieve this.

Network protocol: Standards for data exchange

Network protocol: The basis of electronic data exchange

For computer systems to be able to communicate with each other and exchange information, they need common ground, just like humans must share a common language. But computers don’t rely on foreign language lessons, and instead only need the appropriate network protocol to successfully communicate. This provides guidelines and structures for the data transfer, and so plays a decisive role in the...

UDP - User Datagram Protocol

UDP: What is the User Datagram Protocol?

The Internet protocol family – the cornerstone for communication on the Internet – has around 500 members who work on a wide variety of layers. For example, the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is responsible on the transport layer for the transmission of packets that were previously addressed via the Internet Protocol (IP). In this guide, you can find out exactly what distinguishes...

NTLM (NT LAN Manager)

NTLM: How does this protocol work?

The NTLM protocol was a practical solution for Windows devices for a long time: A user just had to sign in once and then gain direct access to various network services. However, this authentication method is now considered unsafe and is no longer in use. How does NTLM work, and why do users now prefer to use Kerberos?

NNTP - Network News Transfer Protocol

NNTP: What is the Network News Transfer Protocol?

As a global computer network, the Internet provides the perfect foundation for gathering and distributing information. The World Wide Web, the most well-known Internet service, convincingly proves this fact. The older Usenet benefits from the Internet’s global network as well. In order to be able to transfer data, it relies on the unique NNTP, which is the focus of this article.

TCP ports and UDP ports

UDP and TCP ports: A list of the most important ports

Protocols control communication on the Internet. Doors have to be opened so that packages of data can get into systems and come out of them. These ports are an important aspect of the Internet. There are over 65,000 possible UDP and TCP ports, which are broken down into well-known ports, registered ports, and dynamic ports. Which ports are important?

What is ICMP protocol and how does it work?

What is the ICMP?

In the background, numerous protocols ensure that communication and data transmission work in computer networks. As the most prominent representative, the Internet Protocol plays a fundamental role. Without its’ various extensions and additions they would be nowhere near as versatile, as is the case in the current protocol. Thanks to the possibilities offered by ICMP protocol error messages and...

DHCP Snooping

DHCP Snooping: More Security for Your Network

DHCP snooping makes a network more secure. There are no two ways about it: DHCP makes network configuration so much easier. This is especially the case in large networks, where devices are constantly changing and the manual assignment of IP addresses is a never-ending task. Yet by using DHCP to simplify the process, you do relinquish controls, and criminals can take advantage of this. By using...

IP Spoofing: Fundamentals and counter-measures

IP Spoofing: Simple manipulation of data packets by attackers

Sending data over networks is one of the most important and highest utilised functions of the modern computer era. But the structure of the necessary TCP/IP connections makes it all too easy for criminals to intercept data packets along their way and either view or alter their contents. One of the most common methods of attack is IP spoofing, which allows DoS and DDoS attacks, among other things...


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