Protocols

401 error: What can you do about it?

Error 401: Unauthorised – No access to the website

You’re surfing around on the internet, but instead of getting the desired content you only receive an error message: annoying or even downright frustrating. Especially if you don’t exactly know what the status is supposed to mean. How are you expected to solve the problem, if you don’t know what’s causing it? This also goes for the error 401. Here we explain what the error means and what you can...

ERR_SSL_PROTOCOL_ERROR: the best solutions

ERR_SSL_PROTOCOL_ERROR: how to fix the Chrome bug

Chrome is the world’s most widely-used internet browser. The application scores points not only when it comes to security and speed, but also with its features such as cross-device synchronisation of user data. But errors can occur even when surfing with Google’s wonder weapon. These can lead to the browser crashing or prevent certain pages from being accessed. The error message...

Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP)

AMQP: Introducing the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol

Many IT departments need communication between various applications to work swiftly and without errors. For example, lost messages or a bottleneck of messages can lead to expensive problems in the financial industry. With the AMQP protocol, problems like these don't occur. How does the Advanced Message Queuing Protocol work?

UTF-8: Encoding Global Digital Communication

UTF-8: the network standard

UTF-8 is method of Unicode character encoding, which claims to cover all modern languages for data processing. The format has significantly influenced international digital communication. But what exactly does “UTF-8” mean? And what is special about UTF-8 in the Unicode character set? Here you can find out which structure the coding is based on, and which bytes are permitted in the standard...

MAC address

MAC address (media access control)

Without a MAC address, nothing in a network will work on your device. Just as your postman needs a valid address to reliably deliver the mail, the transmission of data packets in computer networks is only possible with the unique hardware address of the target device. When it comes to a MAC address, at least there is one address available on each network-compatible device. But what is the MAC...

IGMP snooping

IGMP snooping: eavesdropping for multicast traffic

If a system in IP networks is to send data packets to different target hosts as efficiently as possible, an IP multicasting connection is the perfect solution. When it comes to multipoint transmission, the data packets are able to reach all interested parties thanks to various protocols such as GMP, for example. Switches and internet routers can also use the communication protocol for IGMP...

What are the benefits of IPv6?

IPv6: All about the new internet standard

IPv6 is the newest version of the internet protocols, and should overcome the central issues of its predecessors. Included in these issues is the impending shortage of IPv4 addresses as well as the violation of the end-to-end principle by the strict separation of public and private IPs. This article gives an overview of the functions of IPv6 as well as the structure and distribution of address...

What is ARP? – Address resolution in networks

What is ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)?

When computer information is sent in TCP/IP networks, it is first decompressed into individual data frames. In this way, you can transfer data of nearly unlimited size. The frames also contain the target system’s MAC address, without which a transmission would not be possible. If the physical address is not known, the sender must first be determined using the ARP Address Resolution Protocol. Here,...

DHCP: An overview of the Client/Server protocol

DHCP: What’s behind the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

If you’re connected to an internet router and power on your computer, it automatically obtains the necessary network parameters, such as the IP address, subnet mask, or DNS server. This is made possible by the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), which simplifies address assignment when connecting to the internet and makes setting up local networks easy as pie.

IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol

IGMP: what is behind the Internet Group Management Protocol

Using multicast connections, data streams can be transferred to a large number of clients easily and in such a way that saves resources – provided that the accessing systems are part of the same multicast group. In IPv4 networks, the organisation and management of these groups is based on the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP), which was published as early as 1989. What exactly this...


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