HTTP

Flush DNS

Flush DNS: how to clear your DNS cache

Various operating systems, such as Windows or macOS, automatically save information about address resolution from systems and applications in the network in a DNS cache. For Linux there are also corresponding services, though they have to be installed by the user. The purpose of this practical cache is to speed up network traffic, which is particularly important on the internet. Why it’s useful to...

Learn to code: an intro on how to get the basics down

Learning how to code: the basics

Welcome to the digital age: every day the average Brit spends hours looking at smartphone screens and PC monitors. But most still lack even a basic understanding on how the programs affecting their everyday life work. If you think you may fit into this demographic, don’t worry: thanks to online courses, videos tutorials, and supportive internet communities, it’s never been easier to learn skills...

Error 522: Explanation and solutions

Error 522 – 'Connection timed out': How to fix the error

52- HTTP error messages indicate a problem between the web server that is running a website and the Cloudflare CDN service. The 522 error is very common and is also known as the 'Cloudflare error'. It is displayed in the visitor’s browser whenever the mandatory TCP handshake fails. This guide explains the reason for this error message and what solutions there are for site operators and visitors....

What does ‘502 bad gateway’ mean?: Explanation and solution

Error 502 Bad Gateway: Where’s the problem?

HTTP status codes emerge when something isn’t running properly on the internet. In this respect, the 502 Bad Gateway error is no exception. But this familiar error message can be particularly tricky: It’s not actually clear where the source of the problem lies. In the chain of gateways along which internet requests run, the error could occur at a number of different points. This article explains...

HTTP error 500: Internal Server Error

HTTP error 500: Where does the problem lie and how to fix it?

Error messages when surfing the net are a nuisance for everyone involved, but especially for those who have to find out what the problem is. The search for a solution can be particularly tedious if the status code message barely provides any information on the source of the error. The HTTP error 500 (“Internal Server Error”) is a collective status code. We give you tips on where errors could have...

401 error: What can you do about it?

Error 401: Unauthorised – No access to the website

You’re surfing around on the internet, but instead of getting the desired content you only receive an error message: annoying or even downright frustrating. Especially if you don’t exactly know what the status is supposed to mean. How are you expected to solve the problem, if you don’t know what’s causing it? This also goes for the error 401. Here we explain what the error means and what you can...

.htaccess tricks

10 .htaccess tricks that everyone should know

Are you the webmaster of an Apache server? Then you should definitely use .htaccess. This text-based configuration file is an easy outlet for changing server settings. Once you know how to create a file and use a few .htaccess tricks, you can begin configuring your sever.

QUIC – the Internet Transport Protocol based on UDP

QUIC: What is behind the experimental Google Protocol?

Quick UDP Internet Connections (QUIC for short), is an experimental network protocol from Google. Further development of the protocol is being driven by IETF, which has set up a dedicated group working towards it. The QUIC protocol is intended to offer a speed-optimized alternative to the current transport standard TCP and builds on the connectionless protocol UDP to achieve this.

Chrome Updates

What is Chrome 68?

Early next month, Chrome 68 will be launched and the new browser will distrust all webpages that do not have HTTPS encryption as “not secure”. This is a big step in the recent trend towards emphasising user safety on the internet, a not entirely selfless strategy from Google. In this guide, we will explain what changes will be made, why they are happening, and how you can prepare your website...

HSTS: Reliably secure your HTTPS connections

HSTS: How the HTTPS expansion works

HTTPS, the network protocol for TLS-encrypted data transfer online can be circumvented in some cases. The danger is that encrypted websites can be accessed via unencrypted HTTP. But the HTTPS extension HSTS (HTTP Strict Transport Security) forces website access via TLS encryption, closing the security gaps that hackers like to use to intercept the HTTPS connection during transport using...