Protocols

The OSI model: a reference for standards and protocols

What’s the OSI model?

Those working with network technology are bound to encounter the ISO-OSI model sooner or later. This system subdivides communication between computer systems into seven different layers. Each of these layers is assigned a certain task. With the help of this layer model, subareas of abstract processes are able to be descriptively explained.

SQL injection: Fundamentals and safeguards

SQL Injection: Protect your database system

There are daily reports on how security gaps in applications are exploited – because hardly a day goes by without a new gap being discovered or a known gap being closed. One attack method, which has always been based on exploiting such weak points, is called SQL injection. But what is actually hidden behind the malicious database exploitation and how can you protect your database system from it?

Client to Authenticator Protocol (CTAP)

CTAP: A protocol for more security & convenience on the web

Try and imagine a world where you don’t have to memorise passwords: Thanks to FIDO2, this could soon become a reality. Authentication in online shops or for online banking can be done through a fingerprint or hardware token. The latter can communicate with laptops of PCs through a USB, NFC or Bluetooth. To enable conversations between two devices, FIDO2 uses the Client to Authenticator Protocol...

PHP 5.6 Support

PHP 5.6: Support stops at the end of 2018

Security support for PHP 5.6 ceases at the end of the year. Although developers had already postponed the end date by a year, many website operators still seem to be unprepared. A large number of websites still run on PHP 5.6. From January onwards, these websites will be at risk. However, many are dreading the update. How can you protect your website?

Ethernet frame

Ethernet frame: definition and variants of the frame format

Ethernet frames enable the transmission of data over an Ethernet connection and are essential for local area networks. Ethernet frames are structured and sized differently depending on the protocol, and contain important information such as MAC addresses, protocol information, length information, and much more. The established Ethernet standard IEEE 802.3 has also developed special frames for VLAN...

An introduction to TCP/IP

TCP/IP explained simply

Without TCP/IP protocols, you wouldn’t be able to read the words on this page. TCP and IP, the two foundational protocols of the suite, along with other related sets of rules, define how computers communicate over the Internet and other networks. In fact, the standards are so established that every device on the Internet follows these protocols to ensure the smooth transfer of data.

clear cookies

Deleting cookies: how to clear stored data

Some cookies can be very helpful – they let you sleep on those impulse purchases and keep them from disappearing out of your shopping cart, or log into social media sites with just one click. But not all cookies make surfing the web easier, and some may even forward unwanted information to third parties. It is a good idea to learn how to clear cookies, and this guide will show you how to clear...

Terminal Servers – the Secret Behind Remote Hosts

Terminal servers: definition, basics, and advantages

In the days of mainframe computers and the first smaller networks, terminals were a crucial building block for sharing hardware and software resources. It is no coincidence that terminal servers – the central administrative entity of such networks – are in demand decades later, now that applications are to be made available to multiple users.

DNSSEC – authenticated name resolution

DNSSEC: internet standards for authenticated name resolution

Without the Domain Name System, users of the World Wide Web would have serious problems when trying to load websites and other online presences. It’s only thanks to this system that internet addresses appear in their trusted text format: they’re actually nothing more than combinations of numbers. The communication between browser and name server responsible for this isn’t actually as secure as you...

PHP 7.1

PHP 7.1 EOL - support is expiring

PHP 7.1 has many fans in the web developer community. But now it's time to say goodbye and switch to a newer version. The development team has set the end-of-life date for PHP 7.1 for the 1st of December, 2019. From that date on, the version will receive no further updates. Even security gaps will no longer be closed by the official developers. What should you do now?


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